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The Vukovar-Srijem County is situated in the far north-east of the Republic of Croatia. It lies between the rivers Danube and Sava, and occupies parts of historical regions of eastern Slavonia and western Syrmia. There is a low difference in altitude. The highest elevation is Čukala near Ilok (294 m of height above sea level), and the lowest is in Posavina – Spačva (78 m). In the east the hills of Fruška Gora slide softly down and turn into the plain of Vukovar. From the west, from the mountain Dilj, there is the Vinkovci-Đakovo plain.
There are important river and continental routes that go through this area which cross with international traffic routes from the east to the west along the Danube River, and from the north across the Sava River towards the Adriatic. There they touch and face civilizations of Western Europe and eastern culture circle. North of Vinkovci there is the Vuka River that mouths into the Danube near Vukovar, and to the south towards the Sava there is the Bosut River with its tributaries Berava, Biđ, Studva and Spačva. Being rich in fish these rivers influenced the continuity of living, along with fertile loess soil. Numerous oak forests that sprung from once wetland rich area in the southern part of the county influenced the population density.
Since 1878th Vukovar was connected to the railway traffic.